Syllabus 16:375:526

Prof. K. Irwin Keating, Ph.D.

kkeating@rci.rutgers.edu (fastest)
932-8012 Never leave a message on the recorder - it keeps them to itself!
Chat - after class, or anytime in the lab

Those "readings in red".

Spring Term, 2003, EnvSci/NatRes bldg., Rm 223 (Initial class meeting - 1:10 Tuesday)

READING ASSIGNMENTS I. through XIII. (These links function as of 01/15/03.)

Just in case you want to ftp image files for a review of some basics: http://101_html/ftp-file-list_html Scroll down to the 445 section. (These links function as of 01/15/03.)

A seminar for advanced students emphasizing parameters affecting the structure of communities in lentic and lotic waters stressed by population, development, and wastes. Emphasis is on the current state of our understanding of aquatic communities (why things are the way they are), both the promise and limitation of biological control of water quality, biological assessment of polluted environments, and management of communities in natural waters. The intent of the course is to launch your continuing curiosity as to why things are not always (maybe never!) amenable to quick fixes. The course requires extensive assigned readings in appropriate journals and other primary sources (usually the assigned readings are collected in a single place). Weekly class meetings include a discussion and short quiz both based on the week's readings. Topics addressed are described, infra.

Major Assignment: Development and Formal Presentation of Scientific Paper (PowerPoint/poster)

The development and presentation of a 15-20 minute oral paper is required. Students will be expected to produce a well-balance outline concerning a topic on which they have developed reasonable expertize. The outline will be the basis for a formal, graphics-enhanced, oral presentation. Use of a computer graphics presentation program will be expected and facilitated. PowerPoint is suggested because of its general availability and portability, and because we can provide access to it and instructions on its use in the department. Mastery of a standard computer graphics program is considered an essential skill for future professional use.

Each student will pick a topic related to the course's theme. Suggested topics might include: a) a student's own research; b) materials generated by a special project undertaken by a student for credit in this, or another, course; c) materials relating to a project which is associated with the student's job; d) materials of relating to any one of the syllabus listings.

Papers will be presented during our last class meeting (in lieu of a final exam) If you select your topic wisely, you will be able to use the materials you develop at some time in the future - in conjunction with a) an oral presentation to a) colleagues at a scientific meeting; b) your employer and, or, customers; c) future employers; d) your research committee; e) your master's committee, or the formal presentation of your dissertation results.

Session topics are listed, vide infra. All can be examined in detail via this link (These links function as of 01/15/03.)

I. INTRODUCTION: LIMNOLOGY AS AN INTEGRATING SCIENCE - Because this course must serve students with somewhat varied backgrounds; i.e., undergraduate majors in engineering, biology, chemistry and environmental studies, the first discussions are intended to provide some general background in the physical structure of lakes. Topics will include: formation, depth, shoreline development, stratification, overturn, and the nature of water and how each is significant to biological productivity.

II. MACRONUTRIENTS I: THE PHOSPHATE/CARBON CONTROVERSY - Introduction to the original papers so often quoted as proofs that phosphate is "not" a significant limiting nutrient in fresh waters (and the ocean??). The sources and alternatives for macronutrient requirements. Information published by academic and detergent industry sources. Strengths and weaknesses in both stories.

III. "MACRONUTRIENTS" II [?]: LIGHT/TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS AND CO2/HCO3-/ACID RAIN INTERACTIONS - the bicarbonate buffering capacity of lakes, and what it means to an aquatic community.

IV. MICRONUTRIENTS: INORGANICS - Trace elements as both toxic and essential materials - the dangers of too much and too little. Chelation: Natural and artificial.

V. MICRONUTRIENTS: ORGANICS - Vitamin production, utilization, binding; other organic micronutrients; autotrophy vs. heterotrophy.What is a niche?

VI. MEMBRANE TRANSPORT - Active transport of nutrients and non-nutrients; role of ATP; osmosis via cellophane or the membranes of moribund cells. Historic perspectives.

VII. GENETICS AND EVOLUTION = TAXONOMY - Evolution, distinctions between two, then three major kingdoms and theories; Margulis's endosymbiont theory, Whittaker's kingdoms. As applied to specimens in field samples. Contrasting uses and values of phylogenetic, numerical, and morphological taxonomic systems. From whence all those Latin names on impact statement lists come.

applications, and predictive value of biological and saprobic indices.

IX. PLANKTON - The role of phytoplankton, of zooplankton in the food chain; disruption of zooplankton
communities in eutrophied waters; r and k selection. The "paradox" of the plankton.

X. ZOOPLANKTON BIOASSAY - USEPA protocols; acute vs. chronic bioassay; Why?
History of aquatic culture vs. bioassay.

XI. N2 -FIXATION - Especially by blue-green "algae" in fresh waters,

XII. BLUE-GREENS & ALLELOCHEMISTRY - Their significance, quantities, sources, identification, future uses.

XIII. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE - Tying together the loose ends and trying to make a freshwater community
function according to plan. (Whose plan?)



A textbook is a functional tool, you could make good use of one. Unfortunately, the only decent "graduate level" limnology textbooks are disturbingly expensive. Do not make the mistake of purchasing some inexpensive text because the word "limnology" is included in the title. The recent, somewhat faddish, interest in limnology has produced quite a few unsatisfactory texts. By "unsatisfactory" I mean that a) they are rampant with genuine errors-in-fact, and b) they are written by persons whose basic discipline is not limnology (which results in a very poorly structured approach to the field, one which invariably distorts the term "limnology"). It is true that every senior scientist (for perspective I consider persons not yet accomplished in research to be "junior") is biased to that one, narrow, topic which is central to his or her research interests, but an ichthyologist who has an interest in lakes as fish habitats is not a limnologist, nor is an entomologist who cannot resist a good trout stream. By the way, an ecologist who has an interest in freshwater systems probably is a limnologist because that is essentially a definition of limnology. The pre-eminent ecologist of the 20th Century, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, was also the pre-eminent limnologist of the century. He passed away on May 17, 1992.

If books were free, this would be your text. They are not, so it is not. My copies are
available to read - NOT TO BORROW!! (No - there are no more recent texts that come even close to matching these.)


      Volume 1 (1957): Geography, Physics, and Chemistry, xiv and 1015.

      Volume 2 (1967): Introduction to Lake Biology and the Limnoplankton, xi and 1115.

      Volume 3 (1975): Limnological Botany, xi and 660.

      Volume 4 (1993): The Zoobenthos, xx and 944.

If you can only afford one unreasonably-priced book (and you are tenacious enough to find it), a highly respected 2nd choice would be -

      Golterman, H.L.
      Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co., Amsterdam, Oxford, New York.
      xiii and 489. (But, it is out of print and difficult to find.)

If you are a pauper, like the rest of us, and you would like a trustworthy basic text on limnology, purchase the most recent edition of Robert Wetzel's textbook. Early editions have been entitled simply - Limnology. The most recent versions include a co-author.

      Wetzel, R.
      W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, London, Toronto.

It will probably cost you about $50.00, but it will be a legitimate investment.

There are copies of all the above in the library (Sci.Med.). I have copies which you may read (in the lab). They have often grown legs (especially the Hutchinson texts) and wandered away never to be seen again. It is painful to replace them ($); thus, the available copies must stay in the lab. (We have a couple of "comfy chairs".)

Some odds and ends ----

Copies of all papers could be in the department's reading area -
third floor balcony. (We can decide this during the first class meeting.)

*For our first meeting - it may help you to download the lecture file labelled,
    "d-445-Stratification.pps" for review/prep

        which can be found at the URL for ftp, supra.

    Scientists, who ought to know,
    Have told me that it must be so,
    And one must never, never, doubt,
    What nobody is sure about."
          Hillaire Belloc.